The endemic butterflies of Angola and Namibia and their evolutionary implications


  • AJ Gardiner Southern African Wildlife College; University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
  • MC Williams† [Deceased]


Angola, biogeography, butterfly, endemism, escarpments, evolution, highlands, Lepidoptera, Namibia


The currently described endemic butterfly species and subspecies to Angola and Namibia are presented together with their known distributions. This butterfly fauna has been placed into the biogeographic units of Carcasson (1964) and Burgess et al. (2004). Aspects of the evolution and biogeography of the fauna, such as their association with other mountainous areas of Africa and their linkage to dry areas of East Africa, are discussed. The information suggests large gaps in our knowledge of the Angolan highland fauna. The importance of utilising such fauna for identifying conservation priorities in these two countries is highlighted.